Wednesday, January 14, 2015

An Introduction to SO/AN


1.     An Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology
1.1.         Brief Introduction to Sociology :
The term 'sociology' firstly Introduce  by French philosopher Auguste comte in 1938 but the terminology sociology is used by ancient philosopher Herodotus . August Comte is one of the founding father of Sociology. It is youngest social science among the social science. Before 1930 it was in the juvenile stage . The teaching of sociology as a separate subject started in 1876 in the united states, In 1889 in France, in 1907 in Britain and in 1919 in India. After 1930s it spread world wide. However the department of sociology/Anthropology established in Nepal under the TU in 1981.
According to the dictionary of sociology by  Gorden Marshall  the  term 'sociology' is derived from the latin socius and greek logus means companion or society and study relatively. Thus the etymological meaning of sociology is 'the study of society'. It means the sociology studies the social action and interaction, social relationships, social process, social system and other related subject matters to the society.
1.1.1.  Defination of Sociology :
 So many sociologist have describe sociology as their understanding and knowledge. Some of them describe about social relationship, interaction and behavior and some of them focuses in social system and structure. Some of the sociologists have given different definition in their own words  which are mention below.
i)  L.F.Ward— “Sociology is the science of society or of social phenomena.”
ii) Ginsberg— “ Sociology is the study of human interaction and interrelations,    their conditions and consequences.”
iii) Von Wiese “ Sociology is a special social science concentrating on inter-human behaviour, on process of socialization, on association and disassociation as such.”
iv) H.P.Fairchild “Sociology is the study of the relationship between man and his human environment.”
v) P.V.Young and Mack “ Sociology is the scientific study of the structure of  social life.”
vi) Max Weber “Sociology is the science which attempts the interpretive understanding of social action.”
vii) Park and Burgess“ Sociology is the science of collective behaviour.”
These above mention definition shows that the sociology is the science of human society. As a conclusion we can define in this way
@ Sociology is a science of society.
@ Sociology is a science of interrelationship.\
@ Sociology is  the study of social life.
@ Sociology is the study of human behaviour in group and social process.
@ Sociology is the study of social action.
@ Sociology is the study of social groups.
We  can conclude that sociology attempts to discover the evolution of society, its system and structure, the development of social institutions and their functions, the customs and rules regulating social relationships, the groups and communities formed by man thorough history , the natural and interdependence of there groups like family, caste, government, economic groups religious groups etc. and the phenomenon of social change.
1.1.2.  Nature of Sociology :
There  is a great controversy about the nature of Sociology among the sociologist that either it is a science or not ? Some of the sociologists claim that sociology can not be  regarded as a science where as other sociologists are oppose to this notion. According to the m who are of opinion that sociology can not be regarded as a science have been tried to prove their argument on the following basis:
i) Lack of experiment :- If science is used in the some sense in which it is used for natural sciences, then sociology can not claim to be a science. The  term science as used for natural sciences include the process of experiment and prediction. Sociology in this sense is not a science because its subject matters can neither be touch nor see, neither weigh nor analyze in the laboratory. It does not process the equipments like the microscope and the thermometer to measure the human behavior and social interaction.
ii) Lack of Objectivity :- Another difficulty of sociology in using the scientific method is that a sociologists can not maintain complete objectivity with the objectives of his experiment as does a natural scientist. Man has own prejudices and bias. So that it is not possible for him to observe his subject matter with bias less manner. Like wise if a person tries to maintain objectivity in the study of human behavior, he is suddenly treated as a foolish betragal or worse. Instead of public hostile behavior social relationship can not be studied through physical sense. It means, a sociologist always confronted with complex phenomenon. So that sociological investigation is always lack of objectivity.
iii) Lack of exactivity :- Science depends upon observation and hypothesis and sociology is unable to employ these methods. From this view point sociology can not be treated as a real science because firstly its methods and conclusion can not be expressed in precise terms and secondly its predictions might not come true because social phenomenon is too vast, human motivations are so complex and it is difficult to make predictions about human behavior. These obstacles do not support the exactivity of sociological investigations as science. So that, it may be concluded that sociological study is merely a social study rather than scientific study.
iv)  Terminological Inefficiency :- There is a controversy that sociology has been suffering from inexact and clear terminology . For example- caste and class have not yet acquired exact meaning. There is a great confusion to explain these terms among sociologists of Indian continent aboard. Some sociologist are of opinion that many of sociological terms like religion, caste, class, groups etc. are the words found in every day use which we ceare to employ terms with vague meanings and these terminological inefficiency will remain an obstacle in the way of sociology developing in to a science.
Sociology as a Science :-
Although a scientific study of social phenomena is not free from difficulties. Social studies, by their distinct nature may not be as exact or natural as physical sciences. Some scholars are of opinion that it needs exactness of conclusion and capacity to predict about the study which makes a subject as a science. But this arguments is not true because universal validity of conclusion and complete accuracy of prediction are not the criteria of science rather the scientific character of a discipline depends on its methodology. If the methods of study are scientific, the subject can be ranked as a science. In this sense, having own subject matter and advanced methodology of study, sociology can be entitled as a science. Other  logical fact which prove that sociology is science are as follows.
i) Although  sociology can not experiment with men directly in a laboratory, but it is responsible to scientific investigation as other natural phenomena. Sociology has developed various study methods including experiment which are- scale of sociometry, social survey, schedule, questionnaire, interview, case study, quantitative measurement or statistical methods and so on. Using this methods of study it can be concluded that sociology is a science.
ii) All the physical sciences are not able to carry out the experiment in the laboratory. For example astronomy can not present the heavenly bodies ( static, planets etc.) in the laboratory. In spite of this situation, astronomy could be termed as science. So there is no justification to deny the title of science to sociology. Accordingly laboratory experiment of science because sir Isac Newton and Archimides did not invent their scientific laws in the laboratories.
iii) Sociology tries to forcast or predict its findings as other physical sciences regardless of variation in culture in different society. For example- incest taboo is universal and only the sociology is able to analyze the cause of avoidance of incest taboo.
Iv) Sociological findings are based on cause-effect relationship. For example in its study of family it has revealed the relationship between family disorganization and divorce, between urbanization and family disorganization as one of the main cause of divorce. It means, sociology tries to find an answer to how and why of social processes and social relationships. Thus sociology can not be regarded as a science.
v) Sociology is a scientific discipline which follows the demands of validity as guided by other sciences. It means, sociology has developed advanced methods of study to analyze its own subject matters particularly the social relation, social institutions and social processes. It tries to deduce general laws from systematic study of its materials and the conclusions drawn from the study of sociological principles are applied to the solution of social problems. Likewise to support this logic, Auguste Comte has described sociology as social physics. Thus, sociology is a Science.
Scope of Sociology :
There is great controversy about the scope of sociology among the sociologists. It means there is no absolute opinion about the scope of sociology. In this sense. V.F. Calberton writes, since sociology is so elastic a science. It is difficult to determine just where its boundaries begin and end; where sociology becomes social psychology and where social psychology becomes sociology or where economic theory becomes sociological doctrine or biological theory becomes sociological theory, some thing which is impossible to decide. Some sociologists are of opinion that 'Sociology studies everything and any thing under the sun.' But this quotation about the scope of sociology is too vague rather it can be said that sociology has a limited field of enquiry which are not dealt with by other social sciences. In sum, there are two main schools of thought among the sociologists about the scope of sociology which are as follows :
i) Specialistic or formalistic school of thought :-
Main advocate of this thought is George Simmel, a famous sociologist of Germany who is of opinion that sociology is a specific social science which describes, classifies, analyses and describe the forms of social relationships such as –competition, subordination, division of labor etc.
Another advocate of school of thought is …..According to him sociology does not cover the study all the activities of society. The scope of sociology is the study of the simple(generic) forms of social relationship, behavior and activities etc.
Likewise another leading sociologists Vierkandt is of opinion that sociology is a special branch of knowledge concerned with the ultimate forms of mental or psychic relationships which link men to one another in society.
Max weber one of the founder father of sociology suggests that the aim of sociology is to interpret or understand social behavior. But social behavior doesn't cover the whole field of human relations. Thus, sociology concerned with the analysis and classification of types of  social relationships.
ii) Synthetic School of thought :-
This school wants to make neutral view about the scope of sociology. It means, it is synthetic  view and the supporter of this school are Emile Durkheim, Hob house, Sorokin and Karl Mannheim.
According to Durkheim sociology has three main division which are social morphology, social physiology and general sociology. Social morphology studies the geographical or territorial basis of human life and its relation with social organizations and  the problems of population like wise social physiology studies the social structure and it can be divided in to a number of branches such as sociology of religion, sociology of law sociology of economics life etc. deals with a set of social facts and the activities of various social groups. The general sociology tries to discover the general character of these social facts and tries to analyze the general social laws.
In the view of Hobhouse sociology is a synthesis of numerious social studies. It means sociology has very wide scope in contrast to other social sciences. There are three main tasks of a sociologists which are – a sociologist must investigate his studies in his particular part of the social field and interpret social life as a whole.
Another scholars Sorrokin . He is a opinion of  sociology is the study of relationship between the different aspects of social phenomena.
Karl Mannheim express his view to the sociology is, there are two sorts of sociology which are systematic & general sociology and Historical sociology . Systematic and General sociology deals the main factors of human action, interaction and other behaviors which are found in every societies. Historical sociology deals with the historical variety and actuality of the general forms of society.
As a conclusion we can say that the scope of sociology is very wide. It is a general science and it has developed more specialization subjects under the framework of sociology. Sociology studies all the different aspects of society like social traditions, social process, social morphology, social control, pathology, effects of extra-social elements upon social relationships, social change and so forth.  Accordingly it I neither possible nor essential to delimit the scope of sociology.
Sub Division Of Sociology :
Sociology it self a broad social science. To solve the various types of social problems sociology has developed more that 50 branches . Which are disrobing as follows.
i) Historical Sociology :- This branches of sociology study the past of social institutions, their structure, system and the origin of new organization in the societies. Historical sociology compare between the past and present social structure, system and development.
ii) Rural Sociology :- Rural sociology studied the rural society and their feature. It studied the rural life, norms, values, agricultural system, ecological setting of the community.
iii) Urban Sociology :-  It is studied the urban social life, urban organizations, urban social problems and so forth. This sub-division of sociology is most practical in western Europe, America, Austrellia, Japan and highly industrialized countries.
iv) Applied sociology :- Under this sub divisions the sociological knowledge and principles  are applied in the society. Social planning an social development along with social welfare is the main aim of applied sociology. This sub division is developed during 1950s.
v) Special sociology :- There are some other special sociologies which have been developed to study different aspects of social life which are mentioned below.
a) Educational Sociology
b) Sociology of economics
c) Sociology of law
d) Criminology
e) Folk Sociology
f) Cultural sociology
g) Sociology of Art
h) Medical sociology
i) Sociology of recreation
j) Sociology of Bureaucracy
k) Sociology of Sex
l) Sociology of Religion
m) Political sociology
n) Sociology of social disorganization
o) Social Psychology
P) Industrial sociology
q) Military sociology
r) Sociology of sports
s) Sociology of social stratification.
Thus, there numerous sub-divisions of sociology which are already developed and some other special sociologies will also be developed in future.

Relationships of sociology with other Social sciences :
 Sociology studies more or less aspects of human life i.e. political , social , religious ,cultural historical , psychological etc. It means ,as sociology studies all aspects of human life, it has certainly some certain relationship to other  social sciences . Likewise , all the social sciences carry out their studies in the human society , it  means human societies is the 'laboratory ' for all social sciences . But except sociology other social sciences studies or deals merely a single aspect of social life .For example – history deals only the historical events, human life etc.
In this sense of relationships of all social sciences to each other , Simpson says," social science is a unity but it is not a fictions unity ; it is indispensable to each  and all of the others . It means , there is very close relationship among all the social sciences that sociology  has brought some concepts and theories from other social sciences  and similarly sociology has given some methodologies and concept to other social sciences . Thus ,it can be occluded that sociology is closely related to other social sciences but there is certain relationship which are separately discussed as follows;
Simpson , George man  in society p.18
                  Sociology and History :-Being the sub-diselipienes  of social  sciences , sociology and  history has very close  relationship to each other . To show the  close relationship between  sociology and History, G.E. Harard says that " History id past  sociology and sociology and History are so intimately related  to each other that both study the social events from past to yet . Sociology is concerned with the study of the historical development of the societies it studies the various stage of life , modes of livings customs , manners and their expression in the form of social institutions . Thus sociology has depend upon history of History . Both Historical and sociological knowledge and methods are mutually useful in the field of historical and sociological research .so that , these two social sciences are very closer to each other.
              In  spite of their close relationship , the two subjects are distinct due to their own subject matter, attitude , study method ( methodology) nature and scope, It means these criteria separate the social sciences from one discipline to another . The dissimilarity between sociology and history has mentioned in the following table.
1.      It is a branch of special social science
2.      It focuses only on Historical events.
3.      It is related to past events.
4.      Historical studies are more descriptive and based on logic.
5.      It studies the can crete events
6.      Historical findings are not experimented
7.      It's scope is very narrow
1.       It is general social science
2.      It focuses on all types of  social relationship.
3.      It is related to both past and present social  phenomena
4.      Sociological studies are more analytical and based on cause-effect relationship .
5.      It studies the abstract phenomena.
6.      Sociological findings are   experimented.
7.      Its scope is very wide.

Beside these points , there is vast difference between sociology and history that the main subject matter , attitude , nature , scope and study methods are differ from one another . In sum, being closely related , sociology and history are different disciplines , or it can be said that sociology id the elder brother of all  social sciences .
1.7.2    Sociology and Economics :-
            There  is also a close relationship between sociology and economic. Economics is a science of wealth and it focuses on three phases of economic activities like production system , distribution system and consumption system. It is thud concerned with a single aspect of human life and social action which is vary closely connected with the material needs of well being . In other worlds . economics is  concerned with material welfare of human society . Beside these economics also deals some sociological problems like unemployment , poverty , population problems etc. which are also the study area of sociology. The theories of socialism , communism , democracy , freemarket  economy , and welfare state are nothing but the theories of social reorganization or social change. So , some social issues , Thomas says, " Economics is , in fact but one branch of comprehensive science of sociology."
Similarly , many economic theories are equally important in the field of sociological theories. For example- modernization theory , dependency theory , world system theory and Marxist theories in sociology have been taken from economics. So, these two disciplines are very close to each other. But both subject have their own subject matter , attitude study method , nature and scope which suggest that these two disciplines are differ the economic aspects of human society and sociology covers more or less all aspects of human life which are shown more clearly in the following table.
1.      Sociology studies the social relationship and social action or social system.
2.      Sociology covers more or less all aspects of social life .
3.      It is a general science
4.      It focuses on group
5.      It has very broad scope
6.      Its nature is empirical and scientific .
7.      It has very developed study method

1.Economics Studies merely the economic relationship and its consequences.
8.      Economics studies merely the economic aspect of social life.
9.      It is a special science
10.  It focuses on individual
11.  It has very limited scope.
12.  Its nature is quantitative and based on statistics .
13.  It has not well developed study methodology as sociology.

1.7.3   Sociology and political Science :-
          Sociology and political science have also very close relationship to each  other. To show the close relationship between sociology and political science Morris Ginsbery says , " Historically ,  sociology  has its main roots in politics and philosophy of history. The Republic of plato and the politics ' of Aristotle are the examples of Ginsberg's quotation . It means , sociology is evolved from political science have very close relationship to each other .
Political science deals with the principles of organization and government ( or state) of human society. It is said that , without the sociological background the study of political science will be incomplete. The structure of government , the nature of governmental bodies , the rules and regulations of the state etc. are determined by the social processes which are also the subject matters of sociology . In the same was , sociology is also to depend upon political science for its couclusious . likewise , the special study of political life of the society as a whole.  For example – pope for sociologists which seeks to  combine sociological  and political approaches .
But it doesn't mean that there is only the close relationship between sociology and political science rather , they are different from each other due to their nature , scope , subject matter , study method and so forth which are shown in the following table:
Difference between sociology & political science:-
Political science
1.      It is the science of society and social interaction.
2.      It deals with social man.
3.      Its scope is very broad .
4.      It is a general social science which covers more or less aspects of human life.
5.      Sociology studies both organized or unorganized communities.
6.      It deals both coucious  activities of  human life.
7.      It is the science of state and visible organizations.
8.      It deals with political men.
9.      Its scope id very is very limited .
10.  It is a special social science which covers only the political aspects of human life.
11.  Sociology studies organized communities only.
12.  It deals conscious activities only.

1.7.4.  Sociology and psychology:-
           Sociology has also very deep relationship with psychology. Social psychology and psychology which proves that sociology and psychology have closeness to each other.
According to vidya  Bhushan and  Sachdera , social psychology  deals with meutal processe of men considered as a social being which particularly studies the influence of group life on the mental development of individual , the effect of the individual mind on the group , and the development of the mental life of the groups within themselves and in their relations with one another . Sociology on the other hands , studies the various kind of groups which compose the society.
Both sociology and social psychology are mutually interdependent to each other . Sociology has borrowed some concept and methods from social psychology. Similarly , social psychology is also depend on Sociology to understands the social structure and culture  patterns . likewise , karl person has not accepted that these two social sciences are separate between these two disciplines motwani says," Social psychology is a link
2 Vidya Bhushan and Sachdeva ibid p.61.
Between psychology and sociology ."
But it doesn't mean that sociology and psychology have only the close relationship and are interdependent to each other. Because , psychology gives emphasis on individual's behavior like – attitude , belief , nature , excitement, sentiment anger intelligence ,hate, jeleousness and other mental activities , on the other hand , sociology gives emphasis on social relationships and other mental activities . on the other hand sociology gives emphasis on social relationship and group behavior and its influence in the society . so that , being closely  related in nature, scope subject matter , attitude and study methods, which are shown in the following table:
1.      Social process and study of social life of human society are the main subject matter of sociology.
2.      It's a general social science
3.      The scope of sociology is very wide
4.      Social society and sampling methods are common in sociology
5.      Group is the unit of analysis of sociology.
1.      Psychic process of human life is the main subject matter of psychology
2.      It is a special social science.
3.      The scope of psychology is very limited.
4.      Experimental methods , clinical method , intelligence test etc. are common study methods in psychology.
5.      Individual is the unit a analysis of psychology.

2.1 Meaning and Definition :
Aristotle was the first person who used the term anthropology.' The term anthropology is the union of two separate Greek worlds , anthropos'  and ' logus'  which mean 'man ' and study or science . Thus , etymological meaning of anthropology is science of human.  And it may be called that " anthropology is the science of man and his works and behavior.
According to Evans Pritchard , "In 1655 , an anomy mouse 's published , entitled " anthropologies Abstracted , " defined anthropologies as the history of the human soul and human anatomy . In 1789, German idealist Kant wrote a book entitled " Anthropologies " was included in the British Encyclopedia in 1822.
The attempts of anthropological development and started from  long ago ( About 400 B.C. ) .But it gained its full shape after the publication of " The origin of species " by charls  Darwin in 1859 . So , sharls Darwin is called the founder father of anthropology. 
3. Jha , Makhan , An introduction to social anthropology , anthropology deals all aspects of human species and their behavior in all places and all times from the origin  of hominids , their evolution to date along with human cultural evolution human behavior in the present society . Ember and ember says , " anthropology studies the differences and similarities both biological and cultural in human population . It is concerned with typical biological and cultural characteristics of human populations in all periods and in all parts of the  world . " 5  It means , anthropology defines itself as a discipline of infinite curiosity about human beings.
Some anthropologists have give the definition of an thropologists in the following ways :
1.      " Anthropology is the study of man and of fall his works . In its fullest seuse it is the study of races and customs of mankind " – Hoeber.
2.      . " Anthropology is the Science of groups of man and their behavior and production . " – A. L. Kroeber.
3.      " anthropology is the Scientific study of the physical , social and cultural development and behavior of human beings since their appearance in the earth. " Jocobs and stern .
4.       " Anthropology is the study of man and his works. –M. J. Herskovits.
5.      " Anthropology studies the emergence and development of man from the physical , cultural and social point of view . " – Mojumdar and madan .
6.      " Anthropology  deals with man as a social being. " – Framz Boas .
7.      Anthropo;ogy is the science of man . In one aspect it is a branch of Natural History , and embraces the study of his origin and position in the relam of animated nature……In another aspect , anthropology is the science of history . " T. K. penniman .
8.      Anthropology is a branch of natural history and deals  with man and the races of mankind " . – Topinarad.
9.      " Anthropology is concerned with humans in all places of the world , and it traces human evolution and cultural development from millions of years ago to the present day. " – Ember and Ember.
 On the basis definitions it may be concluded that anthropology studies the biological or physical origin , evolution , variation and adaptation of human beings. Similarly , it also studies human group , their behavior , , origin and evolution of culture , cultural variation , discoveries and innovations of mankind and so forth. It means , anthropology deals more or less all aspects of human life scientifically .
2.2 Nature of Anthropology :
There is a coutroversy about the nature of nature of anthropology. It means , whether anthropology is a natural science or a branch of social science or it has the characteristics of science or not. To seek the answer from these questions , we have to cast our glance to its main branches . There are two main branch is nearer to biological science and the second nearer to social science . It means it has the property of both natural science and social sciences .
            On the basis of subject matter and study methods , the physical anthropology is nearer to biology , geology , medical science etc. so some have of opinion that anthropology is a branch of natural science . on the other  hand , the subject matter and study methods of social or cultural anthropology is nearer to social sciences like – sociology, psychology , economics etc. So , it can be concluded that anthropology is natural as well as social science.
     There are some opinions about  the nature of anthropology which are mentioned as follows :
                           I.            " As  a natural Science anthropology is simultaneously a physical and a social science . '- Hoebel.
                        II.            " Anthropology is the science of natural history . "" T.K . penniman
                      III.            According to Radcliffe Brown and Malinowski, anthropology should be treated as nature science because it applies the observation method which is commom study method of biological sciences.
                      IV.            According to A. L. Kroeber , Evans Pritchard and Bidney , anthropology is  completely social science .
On the basis of these explanations , it may be concluded that anthropology id both natural as well as social science. According to Hoebel  quoted by Gupta and Sharma in social anthropology , "" The study of man called anthropology when followed in accordance with the principles and methods of science , is consequently a natural science . It is almost unique quality , however , is that as a natural science , it is Simultaneously a physical and social science .
Thus , anthropology  is  a science both  natural as well as social . It has well developed study methods like – fossil dating techniques , laboratory method, observation or anthropological methods and so forth which prove that it can not be regarded as a science.
2.3. Scope of Anthropology :
Anthropology is broader in scope . It is concerned explicitly and directly with all varieties with all varieties of people throughout the world , not only those close at hand or  within a limited area. It is also interested in people of all periods. Beginning with the immediate ancestors of humans who lived a few million years ago , anthropology traces the development of humans until present .
Main field of study of anthropology is physical anthropology which seeks the answer that how human beings evolved in this form , how they originated , who are the closest relatives of human , who are the ancestors of humans , how was the primitive environmental condition , how humans are very from place to place etc. To achieve the answers from these questions , the physical anthropology traces the history from millions of years ago to the present Another field of anthropology cal study is social or cultural anthropology which tries to discover the cause of cultural evolution, cultural variation, discoveries and innovations of man , early tools and techniques , the origin of agriculture and settled life , variation in language , customs , traditions and so froth. It means , anthropology studies more or less all aspects of human life. So , anthropology has very broad scope in contrast to sociology and other social sciences.
In addition to the broad scope of anthropology , another special feature of the discipline is its 'holistic ' or multi – faceted approach to the study of human beings. Anthropologists  not only study all varieties of the people ; they also study many aspects of human experience like – the history of the area in which the people like , the physical environment , the organization of family life , features of language , settlement pattern , political and economic system , religion , art and fashion etc.
Similarly , the anthropological knowledge have been applying in the field of human welfare and development after the world was I . many anthropologists  were appointed as development worker and experts in the third  world countries of the world after 1950s . And applied anthropology is quite popular in community development . So many researches have been conducted by anthropology has very wide scope in the modern world .
a.       In the sense of the scope of anthropology are : -
-          Origin of human and their later evolution,
-          Physiological / anatomical differences among human beings .
-          Physical differences between home sapiens and other mammals or primates ,
-          Characteristics of human races and their distribution ,
-          Early environment and its influence to human evolution , etc.
b.      The second part of the scope of anthropology are :
-          Origin and evolution of permanent village , cities and civilizations , and social institutions ( political , cultural , economic , social etc. )
-          Comparative study of marriage , art , music , literature , private property , state in this way , anthropology has vary social sciences .
2.4   Sub- divisions of anthropology :
Anthropologists have not a single opinion about the sun- division of anthropology . It means , every anthropologists have divided the anthropology in different sub- disciplines .
      According to Ralph Linton , the following are the sub- divisions of anthropology :
                    I.            Physical Anthropology : -
a)     Human palaentology ( dfgj cjz]if zf:q )
b)     Somatology  dfgj z/L/ zf:q)
                  II.            Cultural Anthropology :-
a)     Archeology
b)     Ethnology/ Ethongraphy
c)      Linguistics
Likewise , Hoebel has divided anthropology in to following sub- divisions :-
                     i.            Physical Anthropology
a)     Anthropometry ( dfgj dfks )
b)     Human biology ( dfgj z/L/ zf:q )
                   ii.            Archeology
                 iii.            Cultural anthropology
-          Ethonolgy,
-          Linguistics
-          Social Anthropolgy.
According to professor Dr. Makhan jha , the sub  - divisions of anthropology one the following:-
                     i.            Physical Anthropology :-
a)     Human Genetics
b)     Human paleontology
c)      Ethnology
d)     Anthropometry
e)     Biometry
                   ii.            Cultural Anthropology :-
a)     Prehistoric Archeology
b)     Ethnology
c)      Linguistics
d)     Social Anthropology  , etc.
On the basis of there  basifications made by various anthropologists about the sub – divisions of anthropology , it may be classified that anthropology has the following sub- divisions :-
I.                    Physical Anthropology :-
a)     Human Genetics  (  dfgj pTklQzf:q )
b)     Human paleontology ( dfgj cjz]if zf:q )
c)      Anthropometry ( dfgj dfks )  
d)     Biometry ( hLj dfks )
II.                  Socio- cultural Anthropology
a)     Archeology
b)     Ethnography / ethnology
c)      Linguistics
d)     Social Anthropology
III.   Applied Anthropology :-
     Brief descriptions of these sub- divisions has been made as follows :-
I.                    Physical Anthropology :
a.       Human Genetics :- According to Colin , human genetics studies the process of hybridization heredity , physical adaptation , evolution of new races of human beings , mutation and do forth . Hill and Hill say . " The human genetics………. Means the science of being born and coming in to beings.
b.      Human paleontology :- Human paleontology is the science that deals with the life of the past geological periods  .  It is based on the study of the fossils remains of organism. It means paleontology is the study of fossil man . the study of fossil man helps anthropologists about the origin and physical structure of the organism at that time.
On the basis of the study of fossil man , an anthropologist able to know when did the organism emerged and evolved . Likewise , it is a interdisciplinary approach to study the chronology of hominids , their physical structure , their archeological  remains and habitats .
c.       Anthropology :- According to Herskovits . " anthropometry may be defined as the measurement of  man . It is concerned with the measurement of cornival capacity of human of different races. Likewise , it also carry out the comparative study . of the anatomy between  humans and pre- human hominids. According to anthropometry , one racial group is different from another on physiological basis like height , shape of skill and nose . color of skin , eyes , hair etc. And they have classified the human beings in to three categories viz , Caucasoid ( white ) Negroid ( black ) and mongoloid ( yellow and Red ) 
In sum , anthropometry makes a comparative study of human skill , brain case, eye , nose , the length of hands and legs , skin color etc.   
(2)  Biometry :- Biometry is the statistical analysis of biological studies especially as applied to such areas , as disease , birth, growth, etc. It studies mainly the generation transmitted  dissares  from old generation to  new generation . Some physical anthropologists  have submitted other subjects like otology ( cl:ylj1fg )  and paleopathology ( cl:y/f]u lj1fg ) in biometry .

II.                  Social or cultural Anthropology :
Social or cultural anthropology studies the origin and history of man's culture , their evolution and development , and the structure and the functioning of human cultures in every place and time. It's main branches and their brief descriptions have been mentioned as follows.
A)    Archeology :- Archeology may be defined as the science devoted to the study of endive  body of tangible relies pertaining to the origin the evolution and the development of man and of his culture . It deals primarily with ancient cultures and with past phase of modern civilization . In sum , archeology is the study   of prehistoric and historic cultures through the analysis of material remains.
B)    Ethnography/ Ethnology :- Ethnography is a description of a society's customary behaviors , beliefs and attitudes. And ethnology tries to study how and why recent ( existing ) cultures differ and are similar. Ethnology or ethnography is concerned with patterns of thought and behavior , such as marriage customs , kinship organization , political and economic systems , religion , folk art and music and with the ways in which these patterns differ in contemporary societies. Ethnologists also study the dynamics of culture – that is how various cultures develop and change .
C)     Linguistics : -  There are approximately 2700 languages in existence in the world. The anthological  linguists are interested primarily in the history and  structure of formerly unwritten languages. And the anthropologists are particularly concerned with the relationship between language and cultural behavior . The area of interest of anthropological linguistic are . origin of language ., role of language in the context of social behavior and the using patter of language and the role of language in socialization process.
D)    Social anthropology :- social anthropology was developed in England during 1920s . In USA and other countries , the social anthropology is considered as a branch of cultural  anthropology . It mans , there is no difference between social anthropology. And cultural anthropology . According to Radcliffe Brown , social anthropology is called the natural history of society . This discipline involves the comparative study of social systems and tries to identify the comparative study of social systems and tries to analyse their interdependence. The social anthropology examines societies without history and cultures of an exotic nature.
(III) Applied Anthropology :-    The term " Applied Anthropology " refers to the use of anthropology was firstly applied in the third world countries during and after the second world war. The scope of applied anthropology widened and today it is beginning to claim that it can make a significant contribution for the solution of many burning problems such as racial tensions and racial conflict , cultural reconstruction and human welfare etc.
Relationship of Anthropology with other Sciences :- The field of study of all social sciences is human society . And particularly , anthropology studies the man and his works . It means , from beginning to present anthropology studies more or less all aspects of human life . i.e. economic aspect , political aspect , social aspect , cultural aspect , psychological aspect , historical aspect in social or cultural anthropology and human origin , their later evolution   human variation in both cultural and biological in physical anthropology
To study all these aspects , anthropology has borrowed some concepts , methods and theories from other social sciences and natural sciences like- economics , history , political science , psychology , prehistory , sociology , zoology , medical science and so forth . Likewise , other social sciences also have borrowed some concepts , methods and theories from anthropology. In this way , anthropology has very deep relationship to other social sciences although all social sciences have their own subject matter study method and field of study . so , the relationship of anthropology with other social sciences have been show as follows
( a) Anthropology and History :-
  Generally history is a systematic study of past events. History is the study of past social , economical , political and social events. It means history deals with the best events and theory consequences . It deals every events chronological order  not than 500 years . But anthropology studies the social and the evolution of culture and society from millions of years to data . It means , there is superficial  similarities between anthropology and history  .But some concepts and methods like ethnology and comparative studies are common for both anthropology and history . In this way , history and anthropology are very close to each other .
But , being related to each other , anthropology and history are different subjects which have their own subject matter , scope , nature and study methods and the differences between these two subjects have been mentioned in the following table :-

(b) Anthropology and Economics :-
   Economics is the science of wealth which studies about the prodiction system , consumption and distribution pattern , demand and supply . It means economics studies the economic aspect of humans life . on the other hand , anthropology also studies the primitive economic life of human society . And for the economic analysis of society , anthropology has borrowed some concepts and theories from economics . similarly , to know about the economic institutions of the society , economics has also borrowed some concepts and theories from anthropology . world system theory ' , dependency theory , modernization theory etc . have been taken from the economics to anthropology . In this way , economic and anthropology are very close to each other .
 In spite go these close relationship and interdependence to each other , these two disciplines are vary differ from one anther . It means , the subject matter , attune , study method , nature . scope etc. are different from one discipline to another. The differences between these two disciplines have been men timed in the following  table :-
( C) Anthropology and Political Science :- 
     Anthropology and political science are also very close to each other. The field of study of both anthropology and political science is human society . political institutions , state , government , political system , political theories etc. are the common subjects of study of both anthropology studies the whole aspects of human life along with the political aspects from primitive to present day situation so that anthropology has borrowed some concepts and theories from political science . likewise , political science is based on anthropological methods to understand the situation of political  institution . so that they have mutual interdependence to each other .  In this way , anthropology and political science are very close to each other .
But  in spite of these similarities and interdependence to each other , anthropology and political science are different disciplines on the basis of main subject matter , attitude , study method , nature and scope .  The differences between anthropology and political science have been shown in the following table :-
(d) Anthropology and psychology :-
Anthropology and psychology have also very close relationship to each other. Psychology is the science which studies human behavior such as talent , intelligence , anger , excitement , timber , anger, hate, jealousness and other mental processed which also studies the human mental behavior and their influence to that
 society and culture. In this way , anthropology and psychology are very close to each other . some concepts , methods and theorized have been taken from psychology by anthropology .  The pattern school of thought or psychological school of thought are very common in anthropology which were developed from psychology. Margret mead , G.H. mead , Ralph Linton ,Franz Boas etc. were very much influenced by psychological approaches . Like wise , psychology is also influenced by anthropology . The ' social psychology ; is a common subject of specialization for that , anthropology and psychology are very close to each other .
In spite of the close relationship and interdependence to each other , anthropology and psychology are different disciplines on the basis of subject matter , attitude , study method , nature and scoop which are shown in the following table :-

मलेसियामा अवैधानिक बसोबास गर्ने  १ सय २० नेपाली पक्राउ

भिसा सकिएका, कुनै कागजात नभएका र अवैधानीक रुपमा बसोबास गर्ने बिदेश कामदार पक्राउ गर्ने अभियान चलाएको मलेसिएन प्रहरीले नेपाली बाहुल बजारमा छापा मारेर १ सय २० जना नेपालीलाई गैर कानुनी बसोबास गरेको भन्दै नियन्त्रणमा लिएको छ । उनीहरुसँग कुनै पनि कागजात नभएको र भिसाको म्याद सकिएको मलेसियाली प्रहरीले दाबी गरेको छ ।
प्रहरी र मलेसिया अध्यागमन बिभागको संयुक्त टोलीले आइतबार कोताराया बजारमा धरपकड गर्दाे १ हजार १ सय ९८ जना बिदेशीलाई पक्राउ गरेको थियो ।
मलेसियाबाट प्रकाशित हुने द स्टार दैनिक पत्रिकाका  अनुसार पक्राउ परेकामध्ये २ सय १५ जना अबैधानिक थिए । तीमध्ये १ सय २० जना नेपाली रहेको र उनीहरुसग कुनै कागजपत्र नफेला नपरेको बताइएको छ ।
पक्राउ परेका कामदारहरु बंगलादेश, म्यान्मार, इण्डानेसिया, फिलिपिन्स लगायतका मुलुकका रहेको र उनीहरु लामो समयदेखि अवैधानिक रुपमा त्याहा बसोबास गर्दै काम गरिरहेको स्थानीय प्रहरी जनाएको भन्दै स्टार टाइम्सले समाचार लेखेको छ ।
बिगतमा पनि अवैधानिक रुपमा बसेका बिदेशी कामदारहरुलाई पक्राउ गरि अनुन्धान गरेको र डिसेम्बर ३१ त्ारिख सम्म मलेसिया छोड्न आम माफी दिइएको थियो । मलेसिया सरकारले दिएको आममाफीको अबसर सकिएपछि अहिले मलेसिया सरकारले धरपकडलाई तीब्रता दिएको छ ।
बिषेश गरि नेपाली, बंगलादेशी, फिलिपिनो, र इण्डोनेसियनहरु बसोबास गरेको क्षेत्रमा छापा मार्ने क्रमलाई तीब्रता दिइएको त्याहा रहेका नेपाली कामदार जीवन गौतमले बताएका छन् । उनी भन्दा अगाडि गएर भिसाको म्याद सकिएका पर्ूर्वी नेपालका नेपाली कामदारहरु पनि पक्राउ परेका उनले बताए तर नाम खुलाउन चाहेनन् ।

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